Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Planet World Will Be More Than 11 Billion People

Abstract By the end of this century, the planet world will be home to more than 11 billion people. Feeding all of them in a truly sustainable way remains undoubtedly one of the greatest challenges of this generation. The population boom is sometimes feared as one of the major leading problems to the food security and malnutrition issue; this essay analysis shows that the reasons many suspects are not entirely true; it’s not the number, nor is it about enough land. The world has already what’s required to produce enough food, but doing it at an acceptable cost to the planet will depend on dramatic changes from how we eat, what we grow and how we do it. There is a need driven by the global political will to adopt and incorporate best ideas and strategies from successful existing and previous practices; green revolution, small-large agriculture, organic and local agriculture all combined with new innovations systems that focus on sustainable food production. INTRODUCTION There is a 70 percent chance that the number of world’s population will rise continuously from 7 billion today to 11 billion at the end of this century. Nearly all of this population increase will occur in developing countries. The projections indicate that after 2050 Africa will be the sole continent to keep experiencing a significant population growth. In 2100, Africa is projected to have 39 percent up from 25 percent in 2050, while Asia’s share of global population will far from 54 percent in 2050 to 44Show MoreRelatedHuman Fascination with the Stars1243 Words   |  5 Pagescredited to the understanding of the universe. Our race’s vast determination to explore space has led to the most remarkable scientific discoveries and technological advancements. This willingness to push boundaries in notably seen in NASA’s Apollo 11 mission, where scientists were able to put a man on the moon in just eight few years. The expansion of aeronautical and space knowledge has become increasingly relevant in recent times as environmentalists and statisticians give forecast to the Earth’sRead MoreShould Meat Be A Vegetarian?1566 Words   |  7 Pagesthe people of the world become vegetarian as soon as possible for their personal health and for the health of the planet. Eating meat is not only inhumane, it is also completely unnecessary in our modern age. Meat production has rapidly polluted the planet which has greatly contributed to global warming and climate change. Individuals who eat meat not only risk their personal health, they also risk the survival of future generations. Becoming vegetarian is easy, healthy, and can save the world. Read MoreOverpopulation Essay906 Words   |  4 Pagesseven billion people currently inhabiting this world would be faced with hard times if we fail to take action. An additional 80 million people each year are just going to add to problems such as global wa rming, food and water shortages, fossil fuel depletion, and destroyed ecosystems. All these problems will become more prevalent as world population increases. In 1804 there were a mere billion people. By 1927, it doubled. There were three billion in 1959, four billion in 1974, five billion in 1986Read MoreHuman Population And Its Effects On The Worlds Population1108 Words   |  5 Pageshas been done by climatologists around the world directly linking the effects of population growth to increased CO2 emissions. I will provide data behind the negative externalities linked with these increased CO2 emissions and how they are linked to overpopulation. Even though it’s a well known fact that the U.S is one of the largest contributors of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere its population is still relatively small compared to the rest of the world. Many developing countries population’s suchRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1433 Words   |  6 PagesRising temperatures around the world have been accompanied by differences in weather and climate. A lot of places have already seen changes in rainfall which resulted in an increase in floods, droughts, or intense rain, as well as more continual and dangerous heat waves. The Earth’s oceans and glaciers have also experienced some great changes - oceans are warming and becoming more acidic, ice caps are melting, and sea levels are rising. As these and other changes become more pronounced in the coming decadesRead MoreLimiting Meat Consuming For The World s Future1749 Words   |  7 Pagesgrow food. 780 million people do not have access to clean water and 2.5 bil lion do not have access to adequate sanitation. It takes far more water to produce meat than fruits and vegetables. Limiting the Amount of meat people consume would help the world move forward. The water we use for the feed for animals could be used for food, land used to house animals could be used to plant trees to help the world’s greenhouse effects. This would be an excellent plan to help the world grow and leave a strongRead MoreWhat is Life on Earth? Essay1038 Words   |  5 PagesLife People have been looking towards the sky for as long as they have been on the Earth. It seems only natural that civilizations would begin to wonder if life on Earth is the only life in the universe. Understanding what makes life on Earth is the first step to examining the possibility of life elsewhere. What is Life? Trying to define life is difficult. There is no clear-cut, basic definition of what life is. It is easier to identify the properties of life and decide whether or not somethingRead MoreThe Reality Of Climate Change1579 Words   |  7 PagesChristian Mosier English-151 Dr. Archer 6 April 2017 The Reality of Climate Change Climate change is real; in fact, it s very real. Most people like to decipher the fact that global warming is nothing more than just a perpetuate myth, but if the recent weather especially in the state of New Jersey hasn t told you anything, the weather can be extremely bipolar at times. One day it s sixty degrees Fahrenheit, and the day after its thirty degrees with heavy snow crashing to theRead MoreA Short Note On The Types Of Oceans1005 Words   |  5 Pagesdate: 11-20-15 ResearchPaper: Oceans A. Types of Oceans 1. Atlantic ocean 2. Pacific Ocean 3. Arctic ocean 4. Indian ocean 5. Southern ocean B. Types Of animals in the ocean 1. Sharks 2. Tiger Sharks 3. Dolphins 4. Sea otters 5. Whales C. Ocean Health 1. The Ocean is a very Valuable Asset; over a billion people rely on fish for their basic protein. Millions of jobs all over depend on the marine sector. A sea is an assortment of saline water that makes much out of a planet s hydrosphereRead MoreThe Problems that Our World Faces Today Essay800 Words   |  4 PagesThe Problems that Our World Faces Today The earth is considered as one of the most beautiful planets in the universe. It is the only planet in our galaxy that has enough water to support life. Unfortunately our planet is suffering due to many problems which should be solved before it is too late. The major problems that are facing our world today are population, pollution and animal extinction. One of the problems facing our world is population. It began about ten thousand years ago when the

Sunday, May 17, 2020

The World Population Data Sheet Reported - 2897 Words

All residents of a specific area, city, or country comprise the total population. In my imagination, the word â€Å"population† means all people from all over the world. As everyone knows, people are born, grow, live, multiply, and make history, since the first living things appeared on the earth. Every two years, the United Nations makes an assessment of past, present and future populations in all countries and publishes their discoveries and predictions. Therefore, with this evaluation, they can report on the number of people, and, based on this, they can conclude a hypothesis of what is likely to happen with all us in the future. The World Population Data Sheet reported that in 2014, there were 7,238,184,000 people on the earth. As implied by â€Å"Global Population Growth,† 7.2 billion can reach 11 billion or more than this in 2100 (49). The United Nations News Center reported that every year, the population rises by 143,341,000 people. However, the relationship be tween population and surroundings is complicated. Scientists are concerned when they estimate consumption of natural resources, the demand of the population, and the limits of the earth’s ability to support 4 billion people more (â€Å"Global Population Growth† 49). Indeed, communities’ effect on the environment takes place in two greater parts, as reported by the â€Å"Unit 5: Human Population Dynamics Section 5: Population Growth and the Environment.† The first is that people consume more and more natural resourcesShow MoreRelatedPrevalence Of High Blood Pressure Essay1610 Words   |  7 Pagesabout the data that I have found for this indicator Prevalence of high blood pressure has increased over time According to the data collected, diagnosed high blood pressure increased from 2010 to 2014. This rise in diagnosed hypertension can be attributed to varying combinations of genetic, environmental, and sociological factors (Blais, 2014). Specifically, dramatic increases in the prevalence of obesity and aging population demographics can account for a significant amount of reported high bloodRead MorePrevalence Of High Blood Pressure Essay1596 Words   |  7 PagesPrevalence of high blood pressure has increased over time According to the data collected, diagnosed high blood pressure increased from 2010 to 2014. This rise in diagnosed hypertension can be attributed to varying combinations of genetic, environmental, and sociological factors (Blais, 2014). Specifically, dramatic increases in the prevalence of obesity and aging population demographics can account for a significant amount of reported high blood pressure. In Canada, severe obesity has increased 4-foldRead MoreCyberbullying And Its Impact On Cyberbullying1457 Words   |  6 Pagesunderstanding of two primary forms of bullying: direct and relational/indirect bullying. In 2004, Casey M. Chapell explored bullying with a sample of 1,025 undergraduate students and found that 24.6% of them had been bullied. M.L. Ybara and K.J. Mitchell reported an increase of psychosocial problems in those reporting cyberbullying and victim behaviors, including but not limited to: problem behaviors, smoking, drinking, depression and lower commitment to academic s in their study done in 2004. FurthermoreRead MoreHiv Prevention And The Prevalence Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus1573 Words   |  7 Pageshad previously only been reported in older populations, started appearing in American young men in 1981, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA began to link common denominators (AVERT, 2015). Concurrently, there was a spike in the diagnosis rate of an equally rare lung infection, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), within the gay male population in the United States. The disease initially was believed to be limited to this small population and concern for contagionRead MoreDefinition Of Violence Against Women Essay1372 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to the World Health Organization, The United Nations defines violence against women as any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life (WHO Fact Sheet, 2016, para. 1).† There are many terms used to describe violence. The term domestic violence usually refers to interpersonal violenceRead MoreThe Problem Of Child Sex Trafficking1199 Words   |  5 Pagesmajor issue that is not only plaguing the United States, but the world. Residing in a state where teen sex trafficking is very common, it is imperative that not only adults, but the youth understand what child sex/human trafficking is, what is a sex-trafficker, and the data that reveals the seriousness of child sex trafficking. Human trafficking is considered to be another form of slavery and very common in many countries around the world. Several of these countries are places for cause, travel, purposeRead MoreMrsa Are A Source Of Major Concern For Public Health1098 Words   |  5 Pagespercent of the population carries the type of staph bacteria known as MRSA (MRSA infection). MRSA is generally found in hospitals, simply due to the fact that there are higher number of infected surfaces and people in a hospital. The highest numbers of patients in a hospital are typically elderly patients; they are sicker and weaker than the general population. This ultimately makes them more susceptible to infection due to weaker immune systems. More than a third of the world s population is colonizedRead MoreHuman Immunodeficiency Virus ( Hiv )1324 Words   |  6 Pagesinfected ape s blood to be the source of its transmission to humans. According to studies, this transmission may have occurred in the late 1800s. As years passed, the virus gradually swept across Africa and later into other regions throughout the world[1]. HIV, an infectious disease, tends to advance through body fluids such as blood, semen or breast milk[2] and attacks the immune system. As it progresses, it damages immune cells impairing the immune system in protecting against infections and diseasesRead MoreThe Fight Against Malaria, West Africa1638 Words   |  7 Pagesprocess of conceiving, planning, implementing and evaluating a population intervention. It incorporates evaluation of the process, the intervention and final outcome that allows the intervention to be monitored, evaluated and modified to corresponding population needs, changes in situation, and ensures that its accomplishment leads to the projected goal. The PRECEDE-PROCEED Model (PPM) involves the active participation of the target population and embodies two key parts of an intervention program. PRECEDERead MoreOverpopulation Is Not Too Late?1729 Words   |  7 Pagesimpossible. For instance topics that are now in discussion include cloning of living organisms, colonization in other planets, and creation of virtual worlds. Overpopulation as defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary is â€Å"The condition of having a population so dense as to cause environmental deterioration, an impaired quality of life, or a p opulation crash†. The root to what is causing overpopulation is not too clear but it can be said that technology has contributed to this issue. Innovation in technology

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The moral diversity argument for nonobjectivism Free Essay Example, 1500 words

Moral diversity can be interpreted in different ways through a non-objectivist point of view. Non-objectivism is divided into three basic types: moral subjectivism, cultural relativism and moral nihilism. Moral subjectivism explains that morality is relative to the individual’s beliefs and values. The truth and the moral proposition are dependent on the individual’s personal standards. For example, if he thinks cheating is wrong because it is his belief that cheating is wrong, then it becomes a subjective way of looking into one’s moral standards. Simply put, subjectivism means morality varies from person to person. In cultural relativism, the moral standards are not dependent of personal standards, it is dependent on the cultural norms and standards. It is based on what the society and culture thinks as right or wrong. For example, cannibalism may be wrong for one culture but it may be acceptable for another. Moral principles then can be considered as based on one’s way of living according to the culture and society’s set of standards. Moral nihilism, on the other hand, describes moral claims as nonsense or existing with a category mistake. We will write a custom essay sample on The moral diversity argument for nonobjectivism or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now This means that there is no real truth to moral claims since there is a mistake in placing a property, which is either being right or wrong, on them because it does not apply to them. Objectivists answer to this by explaining that the judgment on the goodness and the wrongness of beliefs and standards based on the idealization of life and the immediate responses of the people believing in them. For example, a society may believe in a monogamous relationship because the majority practice monogamy. All societies are seen to believe in a common belief, that is utilitarianism and universality, wherein people believe in a particular moral principle because they profit from it and because the majority believe in it (Gowans, 2002). b. What is A. J. Ayer’s key argument against ethical objectivism? Ayer’s key argument against ethical objectivism revolves around verification procedure. Herewith, Ayer explains that if moral claims were true or false, it should have an agreed procedure on which to verify its veracity (Ayer and Griffiths). The moral facts that objectivists state as right or wrong are not fact-stating because they have no real claim or standard procedure in which to verify the rightness of the wrongness of their claim. His claim, known as emotivism, actually stems from logical positivism, in which things that cannot be verified through logical analysis or sense experience is meaningless.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Outline Of The Workup Of Cervical Lymphadenopathy

Discuss the workup of cervical lymphadenopathy. How would your recommendations differ for adult, pediatric, and geriatric patients? Cervical lymphadenopathy is the enlargement or swelling of the cervical lymph nodes. Cervical lymph nodes are the lymph nodes located at the anterior and posterior aspect of the neck and under the jaw. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the neck is essential to formulate a differential diagnosis. Cervical lymphadenopathy is not uncommon, especially in children and therefore differential diagnoses are broad (Lang, Kansy, 2014). The causes of cervical lymphadenopathy can be infections, autoimmune disorders, or malignancy. What test would you do first and why? First and foremost, thing to do when a patient comes with cervical lymphadenopathy is to get a detailed history. The history should include questions such as the onset of lump; pain on lump; if the lump is unilateral or bilateral and other lumps present anywhere else in the body; any associated symptoms like fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, hemoptysis, night sweats, weight loss, or poor appetite; and any recent foreign travel, upper respiratory infection or TB exposure. It may be necessary to obtain a detailed sexual, smoking and drug abuse history. Next step is the physical examination by palpating the nodes to assess the size, shape, matting and consistency (Mohseni et al., 2014). In addition, check for tenderness, mobility, erythema and warmth. It is important to

Sound Body Free Essays

A sound body is the most splendid treasure a man can cherish. A sound body means that you are so splendidly strong and well that you can bear the roughest experiences without becoming ill. The body is a living thing to be put out in the air and the sunshine. We will write a custom essay sample on Sound Body or any similar topic only for you Order Now The more roughly you treat your body, the stronger will it be. Physical harmony is an index and expression of a harmonious mind. If one wants to build up one’s mind, one must build up first the body. Man has a body as well as a mind. So intimate is the relationship between the two that the neglect of one is bound to have adverse effect on the other. And so, a harmonious development of both, or, in other words, a sound mind in a sound body should be the aim of every man. The mind and the body are inter-related, so that the health of one is the health of the other, and the ills of one are the ills of the other. The sounder the body, the sounder the mind that resides in it. A healthy man is always happy. He feels inclined to work. He feels inclined to serve others. A man with a sound body is full of optimism. He goes ahead. He presses on and on. Nothing can daunt him. Nothing can handicap him and nothing can frustrate him. He is enthusiastic and energetic. He radiates health, hope and happiness wherever he goes. He is loved and liked by one and all. He makes friends wherever he goes. He moves mountains. He gets over all difficulties and hurdles. His strong mind fears none. The mind of a man with shattered body and health is always full of pessimism and sorrow. He has no heart to do anything. He likes to mope and whine in a corner. He tells his sad tale of woe to everybody he meets. He has no hope and sunshine to scatter. Life has no charm for him. He is sick of it. He feels disgusted with it. His mind is diseased. His enthusiasm is dead. He is no better than a dead man. A child has a sound body and consequently a sound mind. He is always happy. He smiles his way into the heart of everybody. Everybody feels drawn and attracted towards him. Who does not want to love and fondle him? Who does not like to kiss his sweet, angelic face? His very sight, his movements, his innocent prattle, fill even the gloomiest heart with joy. On the other hand, take the case of an old man, with shattered health, toothless mouth, sunken eyes and shriveled skin. He always talks of death. He is completely disillusioned. For him the world is a vale of tears. He does not like his own wife and children. He has no taste for anything. He condemns one and all. Only a man with a sound body can enjoy real contentment and true peace of mind. A man with a diseased body is never in a happy and contented state of mind. He is always complaining and grumbling. His mind is seldom at peace. For him life is a burden. A man may be very rich but he cannot enjoy his riches if he is always sick. A judge may be very able but he cannot play his part efficiently if he is constantly worried by one bodily ailment or another. The head of a State may be the ablest man in the world but he cannot function effectively if he is constantly tormented by some disease. A doctor may be the best physician or surgeon but he is of no use to society if due to his illness, he cannot attend to his work in the hospital for more than two days in a week. However rich or educated a person may be, if he is physically harassed, life becomes something of a burden to him. â€Å"A nation of healthy and bright young men and women is an asset to our modern human civilization. Citizens of tomorrow, as the students of today are called, shall have to combine a healthy physique with a healthy intellect. The trophies of success have been won by those young men and women who laid emphasis on oft-quoted dictum ‘healthy body healthy mind’. â€Å" How to cite Sound Body, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility World Business Council For Developmen

Question: Discuss about theCorporate Social Responsibilityfor World Business Council For Development. Answer: Introduction Corporate is a word that can be used to mean organizations or companies. Corporate social responsibility(CSR), according to the World Business Council For Development (1999) CSR is an ongoing obligation by industry to perform morally and add to fiscal advancement while improving the value of life of the personnel and their families together with that of local population and society at large. According to European Commission Green Paper (2001) CSR is companys voluntary input to society and atmosphere. CSR is meeting within the practical means the outlooks of all stakeholders to exploit the companys constructive image on its social and physical surroundings (, 2003). According to Pearce (2000) feminist theory is key in business procedure because it defines CSR as a focus on ethic of care. This theory of the philanthropic corporate citizenship assumes that a corporate has a conscience and concern to needy individuals and groups within the setting it operates in. It focuses on trails of close relationships such as sympathy, compassion and friendship. This theory explains why most business engages in benevolent programmes and activities. Halima, (2005) tinted that CSR is a way of doing commerce by which managers internalize outside factors. He further points out that, when CSR is carried out well this procedure generates bigger profits in the short-term through improvement, in the average term through status in the long- term by developing new markets and awaiting new rules. Commenting on CSR versus performance, Halima state that CSR is related to presentation of the business. He further noted that businesss first social accountability is good performance leading to high profit to the owners after which it can use CSR as another business tool. Moses and Benham are of the view that, CSR activities are organizations obligation to reducing damage or getting rid of injurious effects and exploiting its long-term outcome on the society. Their make included an action like behaving ethically treating employees fairly and minimizing damages on environment. This would mean a social accountable company will include considering the effects of its action on someone and anything whether directly or indirectly. In conclusion CSR will mean corporate have tasks to the civilization that goes past the making of goods and services at a profit and it is the stakeholder alone. Corporate have the job to help the society solve vital social problems by devoting resources for them. Discussion This research identifies the dimension of CSR through 3 main aspects of CSR relative to the factors affecting customers support of socially accountable behavior companies in various countries. The higher outlooks for the Legal CSR will be definitely linked to the customers support of socially accountable behavior for companies, elevated prospects for the ethical charitable CSR will be certainly related to the customers support of socially responsible behavior of companies and higher expectations for the economic CSR will be absolutely related to the customers support of publicly responsible behavior of companies. According to Njoroge Jane Gakenia, (2009) ethical behavior is a prerequisite for all business which means functioning within the appropriate laws. Take an example of the guiding principle established by the Co-operative Bank; it has made a public assurance not to spend in any government or industry that does not endorse human rights and to steer clear of arms industrialized and animal testing some might argue that this means limiting growth. Anursorn and Kiran claim that companies use different other approaches in gauging perceptions on ethic issues and company problems. Outcomes show that distinctions in apparent significance of ethics and social duty among marketers of different nations exist because of country disparities in culture, financial growth and lawful or political milieu; distinctions in organizational ethical environment; and gender differences. Maignan, I. and O.C. Farrell (2000) asserts that, in most cases, the supporters of stakeholder view disagree that paying consideration to the rights, needs and interests of many stakeholders of a company is a useful way of inculcating socially responsible behavior among many corporations. Smith, N. C. found that the outcomes from the lone case investigation are mirrored in larger studies of Hong Kong organizations that show low level social reporting. There is a possibility to enlarge the content analysis of public reports and carry out interviews with the top management of other Hong Kong-based organizations to look at the reasons behind the disinclination to participate in HR reporting. Welford R. (2005) stated that various researchers emphasized on the social accountability and significance for outsiders such as shareholders, customers and other stakeholders, and the consequence on business, standing and performance. Scholtens, L. J. R. and Dam, L. (2007) stated that first on affects the behaviors of their constituency including their perception of CSR. Whitcomb, L. L., Erdener, C. B., and Li, C. et al. (1998) stated that Chinese social setting have been altered considerably, those shifts must persuade Chinese employees work values, there is a big dissimilarity in implementing Corporate Social Responsibility in different nations; this disparity is culture and ethical reasoning. Joyner B. E. and Payne, claimed that the agreement is that the connections between values and Corporate Social Responsibility are not immaterial but rather interconnected with ethics,, and having a major impact on ethical decisions-making and ethical judgment. Values control the scope of corporations perceived CSR and are influenced by societal activities and norms or standards. Conversely, company moral or unprincipled behavior can manipulate the values held by members of the community. According to Bronn, P. S., Vironi, A. B., Matten, D. and Moon, J., in Europe, CSR problems are more unspoken in the proper or casual institutional business setting and join the list of state responsibilities and the lawful framework. The North American notion of CSR symbolizes the creative framework of the occurrence emphasizing its moral-philanthropic aspect based on probing the ethical perceptions of manager from China and the United States of America (Shafer, Lee Fukukawa, 2007). The findings revealed that, although there were key distinctions in moral perceptions between 2 countries, such differences did not survive in all situations and the pattern of some differences was clashing. For example, Chinese managers believed that moral values and social responsibility were compulsory for business to live on in the long-term. Burton, B. K., and Hergaty, W. H. (1999) found that level of CSR course in female students is more than in male students, that is to say that, females are in a position to rate higher on scales of principles and social duty than men. Tian, H. and Lu, X. H. observed that in the budding nations such as China, Corporate Social Responsibility is still in its immaturity which is still about corporate operation at the fundamental lawful point, and Chinese civilization is still struggling with issues such as corruption, labour rights, distributive justice, corporate crime, product safety and pollution. With Chinas evolution to a market economy, the weakening of the conventional business ethics and morality has attracted a lot of attention. However, the normal CSR concepts and practices are still subjugated and influenced by Western-centric attributes, which largely abandoned the effects of other cultures on CSR. Toyota is a company that manufactures a diverse variety of vehicles all over th e world. As an innovative leader, Toyota is adversely known for its management philosophy and the globes first mas-market products. Business Continuity Management (BCM) at Toyota BCM activities are delivered through organization between workers and their families, the Toyota Group company and their suppliers, and Toyota. Furthermore, each allotment and task at Toyota has formulated a recovery-based BCP (organization chart, operational flowchart, and operational procedure manual). Using this in preparation and training, the PDCA cycle is implemented and unremitting enhancement is undertaken to regularly elevate the practical efficiency of the arrangement. Through this process of formulation and review of the BCP, we aim to develop human resources with the aptitude to react to an occurrence and to build, as a routine task, a system of risk-resilient organizational structures, workplaces, and individuals. Risk Management Basic Philosophy Regarding Risk Management In retort to the sequence of summoned up issues in 2010, Toyota has been strengthening its risk management systems. A Risk Management Meeting (currently renamed Corporate Governance Meeting) was recognized in June 2010 and risk managers were appointed as part of global measures to take preventive action across the range of risk happening in business actions. Organization and Structure Toyota selected a Global Chief Risk Management Officer (CRO) to lead worldwide risk management and reputable configuration under the Global CRO to observe risks on a regular basis. This makes it possible to respond instantly in the event of an emergency. Regional CROs are selected under the Global CRO to supervise individual regions, and each area has its own risk management composition. The chief officer and secretariats of each functional division are assigned to be responsible for managing risks relating their specific functions and cooperate with regional risk managers. Promotion by Corporate Governance Meeting Since 2015, the endorsement of risk administration has been discussed at the Corporate Governance Gathering which has been set up in concurrence with organizational transformations that are proposed to incorporate CSR into administration and elevate corporate importance during management overall. The Corporate Governance Meeting is a body that deliberates on control with the aim of carrying out growth strategies that put together the value that Toyota offers with regard to numerous social issues. Two of the five annual meetings of the Corporate Governance Meeting are attended by the CRO of each region and all Senior Managing Officers and Chief Officers. This allows the meeting to lengthily recognize risks to company activities and commence precautionary measures. At the meeting, improvement and reinforcement to the risk management system of each area are recognized and grave risks are stated along with all current risk items. Reports are also made on the status of initiatives against imminent serious risks and other risks with worldwide conclusion. Companies should hearten ethicality and flexible performance in order to profit from it. Hence, company marketing should support playing a significant role in determining prospects of this kind. For a corporate marketers must put together ethical and social consideration into all levels of their companies daily practices and activities, in order to observe and fulfill the stakeholders wishes, needs, expectations, interests and behaviors, is a main concern of corporate marketing. Advantages Toyota has established the All Toyota Security Guidelines (ATSG), a set of defense on information security casing Toyota, its subsidiaries and affiliates that seeks to prevent information leaks and unauthorized access from outside, such as cyber attacks. The ATSG establishes measures in organizational, personnel, technological, and physical management and also stipulates a response system for the event of an information leak happening. We work to ensure information security from numerous approaches. Since its establishment, Toyota has endlessly strived to add to the sustainable growth of the community through the manufacture and provision of innovative and quality products and services that lead the times. Automobiles greatly enlarged the autonomy of mobility, but are also related to and affect a number of social and environmental issues. With this in mind, we listen carefully to our customers and neighbors in local communities to track our business, seeking harmony with people, soci ety, and the global setting, as well as the sustainable expansion of society through monozukuri. To progress the practicability of the Basic strategy, which give precedence to local recovery following a disaster, and to help build disaster-resilient communities, Toyota has completed disaster support agreements with home governments (October 2013: Toyota City; February 2014: Miyoshi City; March 2015: Tahara City; August 2015: Susono City). It involves the consideration of the various stakeholders and the contentment of their needs. In this study, the lawful, ethical-philanthropic and cost-effective aspects are being looked at in the prospective of the consumers. CSR initiatives also increase the companys profile to customers and investors through its activities. The use of CSR as an instrument for the long-term sustainability of the organization can also be seen through its unremitting efforts to sustain its customers base through its effort in giving back to society. Employees are also in a position to obtain fundamental principles and rights at work so that they can be in a position to tackle their work with ease even in harsh conditions. Disadvantages Though Toyota was not openly affected by recent large-scale disaster such as the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Thailand floods, their production operations were stopped which caused difficulty to clients in sales and services. References Anurson S., et al. (2001). How important are ethics and social responsibility? A multinational study of marketing professionals. European Journal of Marketing. (35:1), pg. 133-153 Bronn, P. S. and Vrioni, A. B. (2001). Corporate social responsibility and cause-related marketing: An overview. International Journal of Advertising. 20(2), pg. 207-222 Burton, B. K. and Hegarty, W. H. (1999). Some determinants of student corporate social responsibility orientation. Business and Society. 38(2), pg. 188-206 European Commission Green Paper. (2001). Promoting European Framework for CSR Brussels. July 18 Armstrong Michael (2008). 8th edition a handbook of HRM practice. Preteville Road, London. Halima W. (2002) corporate citizenship: Revisiting relationship between business good governance and sustainability. Unpublished. Kenyatta University MBA project. Joyner, B. E., et al. (2002). Building values, business ethics and corporate social responsibility into the developing organization. Journal Development Entrepreneurship. 7(1), pg. 113-131 Lu, X. H. (2009). A Chinese perspective: Business ethics in China now and in the future. Journal of Business Ethics. 86(4), pg. 451-461 Maignan, I. and Ferrell, O. C. (2004). Corporate social responsibility and marketing: An integrative framework, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 32(1), pg. 3-19 Manivannan, A. M. P., et al. (2013). Factors affecting Corporate Social Responsibility for Socially Responsible Companies in Malaysia. American Journal of Economics. 3(2), pg. 103-107 Matten, D. and Moon J. (2004). Implicit and explicit CSR: A conceptual framework for understanding CSR in Europe. ICCSR Research Paper Series, No. 29. Moses and Benham. (2004) CSR belongs with HR Canadian HR reporter, vol 17 no.7 Njoroge, J. G. (2009). Factors Influencing Corporate Social Responsibility Programmes Among The Commercial Banks In Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya Peerce (2000) Strategic management formulation implementation and control: 7th edition. Mc Graco Hill Tnt pg. 53 Scholtens, L. J. R. and Dam, L. (2007). Cultural values and international differences in business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics. 75, pg.273-284 Shafer, W. E., et al. (2007). Values and the perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility: The U.S. versus China. Journal of Business Ethics. 70(3), pg. 265-284 Smith A. and Hume E.C. (2005). Linking culture and ethics: A comparison of accountants ethical belief systems in the individualism/collectivism and power distance contexts. Journal of Business Ethics. 62(3), pg. 209 Tian H. (2006). Corporate social responsibility and advancing mechanism. Beijing: Economy and Management Publishing House, China. Pg. 5-30 Toyota Motor Corporation, in Toyota, Aichi, Japan Welford, R. (2004). Corporate social responsibility in Europe and Asia: Critical elements and best practice. Journal of Corporate Citizenship. 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Factors Caused US Financial Crisi 2008-09 â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Factors That Caused The US Financial Crisis Of 2008-09? Answer: Introduction Economies perform differently during various business cycles; there are two cycles; the boom (peak) period where there is an accelerated growth in the economy and the burst (recession) period where there is strained economic growth. Before 2008, the performance of the US was high. Pettinger (2017) pointed out that the US economy was stable from 2000 to 2007 with a strong growth, falling unemployment and low inflation. However, despite this economic stability Pettinger noted that there were rising concerns on the growing instability on the financial marketing and credit. There was a boom in the housing industry that resulted in an increment in the aggregate consumption component of GDP. Thus the GDP recorded before the crisis was high. This paper will analyze the changes in GDP before, during and after the crisis. During the crisis, many macroeconomic indicators performance was poor; these indicators include real GDP, Inflation, Unemployment, etc. The paper will consider the actual causes of the crisis which resulted from the money supply growth. It will cover the origination of the money supply growth. This research will show that the financial crisis in the US was as a result of failure on the financial lenders and the government. Rosner (2013) pointed out that the governments regulation on lending institutions was weak. It shall analyze how each of these parties failed and the impact of each of their failures. The impacts of the financial crisis were not only felt in the USA economy but was spread to other nations; there are just a few economies that wasnt impacted by this crisis. Some of them that are financially stable were able to implement policies that led to a quick recovery while others are constrained up to date. The Factors Responsible for the Financial Crisis Loose Monetary Policy and Money Growth In the early 2000s the US economic growth was lower which stimulated the US Central Bank to lower its interest rates. Malinen (2017) argued that prior to the crisis, the US monetary policy was loose. The impact of a lower interest rate is an increased money supply since people are attracted to loans advanced by financial institutions owing to the low cost of repayment. There was thus an increased borrowing of loans and a greater growth of the money supply in the circulation. Since investors are always uncertain about the future, they decided to utilize this available capital to invest in assets that would give them returns in the future. The major asset that demand went up was that of the housing industry. Households and investors decided to utilize this availability of cheap capital to buy homes. Fig: Growth of money supply Source: (2017) The graph shows that there was a huge money creation by the banks prior to the crisis. According to (2017), money is created every time a loan is made by the banks; the money and debt amount in the US economy had doubled in a period of seven year from the advancement of the loans. Subprime Mortgage An increased demand for homes raised the demand for mortgages. Initially, financial lenders could only advance loans to prime lenders who had good credit ratings and avoided loaning the subprime borrowers. This is what had kept the housing market in a stable state. The increased demand for mortgages resulted in the financial lenders weakening their lending standards. In the period before the crisis, banks were more aggressive and their willingness to lend to the risky borrowers had gone up (Nitta, 2013). They figured out a way to make the funds available to the low-income groups through pooling. This strategy was considered less risky but no analysis was done or had been done earlier to confirm its viability. The proposal was accepted and the financial lenders started lending to the low income groups without necessarily requesting them to provide some security. Many subprime borrowers went for the loans and there was a greater supply of money to many people in this economy. The loans were advanced as mortgage home loans meant for assisting the investors and households to acquire homes and repay as they used to houses. These subprime borrowers were risky since their income level was insufficient to service the loans; the banks failed to do a sufficient check on the ability of these borrowers to repay their loans; they recklessly gave them huge loans. The government had also set a regulation towards achieving the goal of non-discrimination on the acquisition of capital because of the brackets of income. After the credit crunch, these borrowers were left with huge unpayable loan amounts. Housing Bubble The Mortgage loans advanced to the subprime borrowers enabled them to buy homes and other houses used for businesses. The mortgage loans were given at a very low interest rate and thus attracted many borrowers. Pettinger (2017) noted that the high confidence for the borrowers and a growth in bank lending facilitated the housing boom. The access of these loans by the subprime borrowers caused the homes demand to shoot upward (, n.d.). The law of demand accounts for a price rise whenever demand rises. The price rise generated great profits to the investors; more homes were constructed in order to raise more profit. Many people shifted their investment to the housing market so get a share of the rising profit Fig: Uses of money created by banks prior to the crisis Source: (2017) The greatest proportion of the huge amounts of money the banks created were used for mortgages and secured loans (Mee, 2012); this was equivalent to 31% of the total money created. The 31% went to residential property and there was a further 20% that went to commercial real estate. Credit Defaults Prior to the crisis, the personal debt in the US was very high. It even exceeded the income amount and thus at some point became difficult for the borrowers. The borrowers had to repay their loans with some stated interest rate. After the housing bubble burst, the financial lenders went into huge losses because borrowers were not able to service their loans further. The subprime borrowers couldnt repay their loans; in addition, the prime borrowers could also not be able to repay their loans. There was a great challenge for the financial account lenders. What caused the global recession is that when people started defaulting on their loans, financial institutions such as banks tightened their lending behaviors; the money supply was reduced resulting in a lowered demand for homes and subsequently a fall in price. The demand law also account for a price decline on instances where demand is insufficient. The falling prices accounted for the bursting of the housing boom. The previous borr owers could keep toping up their loans to enable them to service the loans. The slowdown of lending made it difficult to access loans owing to the panic caused to the lending institutions. This forced these borrowers to decide selling their assets and repaying the loans. However, the assets value had declined compared to when the loans were advanced and thus insufficient money were raised from such sales and the full amount of the loans was unpayable given the income constraints. Further, the increased default rates caused the banks to continue tightening their lending such that investments were completely not possible. Investors confidence had also declined and thus economic activities fell significantly; the US fell into a recession. Lehman Brothers Lehman was a giant investment bank and the 4th largest in the US. In 2003 and 2004 when the housing boom was showing up, this investment bank acquired 5 mortgage lenders. Lehman was accused of creating mortgage backed securities that were toxic and their sales put the financial market at risk (Williams, 2010). According to Alex (2017), this bank filed for bankruptcy in September 15th 2008; it was one of the largest victim of the subprime mortgages and thus argued to have been the major cause of the financial crisis (, 2010). Its contribution to erosion of market capitalization was close to $ 10 trillion in October 2008. According to Mcdonald (2016), it is the collapse of this investment bank that triggered the global recession. Stock Market Crisis The US stock markets are strongly correlated with other universal related stocks; whenever it is declining, all other stocks declines. After the end of the 2000-02 stock market crush that resulted from the internet boom, the MA was plunged by lenders one again (Nations, 2017). The 2000-02 was the 5th wave of stock market crush whereas the 2004-07 was the 6th wave. The percentage of cash deals rose with this wave and the role played by the LBOs was larger than with the initial waves (Hooke, 2015). The stock market crash caused the deal volume to fall by 60% during the 2007/2008 global financial crisis. According to Amadeo, (2017), a loss in investors confidence is responsible for causing a recession. Dumping of China Treasuries Mees (2012) argued that the American spending binge was prospered by China and not by the US. The US saving rate was around 15% from 2000 to 2006 whereas that for China rose from 38 to 54% during this period. The Chinese are risk-averse and thus their savings are ties to risk-free assets. The savings buildup in China and emerging economies had expanded and caused a depression of interest rate in the whole world from 2004; the US Treasury bonds price rose as there was too much money chasing. Subsequently there was a fall in the interest rate. China and Japan have been the greatest creditors for the US. Fig: US treasuries foreign ownership Source: Gantz (2017) There was a decline in the US treasuries foreign ownership in 2008 which means that there was a reduction of the available credit; this contributed to the financial difficulties. Conclusion The US global recession was caused by the credit crunch; there was a shortage of liquidity for the banks and thus a reduced funding. The financial instability lowered businesss and consumers confidence. There was a negative wealth effect as the house prices fell after the boom. Since the economies are interrelated, the impacts of the US financial crisis were also spread to other economies and this deteriorated the trade system; there was a decline in exports as other economies also felt the financial constraints. There was a significant fall in GDP and the unemployment rate rose. There was a failure of the banks in that they recklessly advanced loans to the risky borrowers without a sufficient cross-check of their ability to repay. The government failure is argued in terms of low regulation on the lending behavior by the financial institutions. The central bank regulates the circulation of money and it could have ensured that the financial institutions did not cause such a big growth in the money supply. Otherwise it can be concluded that the government was more impressed with the growth of the economy that was accelerated by the rising house demand that it failed to look into the impacts that this would have on its future. References Alex (2017). The collapse of Lehman Brothers. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Sep. 2017]. Amadeo, K. (2017). Causes of Economic Recession. [Online] The Balance. Available at: [Accessed 12 Sep. 2017]. (2010). Lehman Brothers Art Work under the Hammer. [Online] CNBC. Available at: [Accessed 13 Sep. 2017]. Gantz, L. (2017). Market Euphoria, Chinas Dumping of Treasuries Ignite Recession Concerns. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 14 Sep. 2017]. Hooke, J. C. (2015). MA: a practical guide to doing the deal. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. Malinen, T. (2017). Who Caused the Great Recession? [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Sep. 2017]. Mcdonald, O. (2016). Lehman brothers: A crisis of value. management, Manchester University Press. Mees, H. (2012). How Chinas Boom Caused the Financial Crisis. [Online] Foreign Policy. Available at: [Accessed 13 Sep. 2017]. (n.d.). Causes of the Great Recession. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Sep. 2017]. Nations, S. (2017). A history of the united states in five crashes: Stock Market Meltdowns That Defined a Nation. New York: HarperCollins. Nitta, Y. (2013). What were the primary causes of the Great Recession that started in 2008? [Online] Available at: [Accessed 13 Sep. 2017]. Pettinger, T. (2017). The great recession 2008-13. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Sep. 2017]. (2017).Financial Crisis Recession? [Online] Positive Money. Available at: [Accessed 12 Sep. 2017]. Rosner, H. (2013). What Really Spurred the Great Recession? [Online] Kellogg Insight. Available at: [Accessed 12 Sep. 2017]. Williams, M. T. (2010). Uncontrolled risk: the lessons of Lehman Brothers and how systemic risk can still bring down the world financial system. New York, McGraw Hill